There have been recent, significant changes in the nature of the threat environment that make much of the way Electronic Warfare (EW) has been conducted for many years obsolete. This course deals with systems and techniques that are now required for success in EW operations. The course starts with a review of current practices – which are still required in many situations. Then it discusses the weapons and sensors in the new threat environment. Note that this is an unclassified course, so new threats and sensors are described as presented in open source literature. Since the accuracy of technical specifications in open source information cannot be confirmed or denied, the following approach is followed. First the presented information is evaluated to determine if it makes sense from a “laws of physics” perspective. If it passes that test, it is quoted and treated as accurate. This course will deal with how the quoted information applies in EW operations and performance evaluation. Then, later, when you need to do a real EW task in the real world, you will need to look up the actual enemy system specifications (from classified sources) and apply that information in the ways described in this course.
Each three-hour session includes lecture and hands-on exercises. Attendees should have scientific calculators (or smart phones with that function) available to complete the exercises.
Session 1 — EW Principles
June 12 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session is a general introduction to Electronic Warfare (EW) and describes its component parts: Electronic Support (ES), Electronic Attack (EA) and Electronic Protection (EP). It covers radio propagation for radar and communication links and formulas for intercept and jamming performance parameters using convenient dB formulas. Also covered in this section are: antennas, receivers, emitter location techniques, jamming approaches and geometries, and infra-red threats and countermeasures.
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Session 2 — Legacy Weapons and Threat Radars
June 14 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session discusses legacy weapons (anti-aircraft missiles and guns and anti-ship missiles) and their associated radars that have been faced by EW since Viet Nam. It also covers legacy anti-ship missiles. For each type of weapon discussed, its operating parameters, capabilities and vulnerabilities are described along with the EW systems and techniques that are used against them. This section includes calculation of Jamming to Signal Ration (J/S), and burn-through range for various specific legacy threats using self- protection or standoff jamming. It also discusses the limitations of these weapon systems that lead to the development of next generation weapons.
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Session 3 — Next Generation Weapons
June 16 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session describes the recently developed hostile missiles and guns along with their associated acquisition and tracking radars. In each case, the capabilities of the new weapons are compared with those of the legacy weapons they are replacing. This includes description of the important electronic protection (EP) features of new weapons and their impact on the J/S, Burn-through range and intercept range of each type of weapon system described. An important part of this section is the description of pulse Doppler and pulse compression radars and their impact on EW operations.
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Session 4 — New EW Approaches and Techniques Required
June 19 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session deals with the techniques required for the detection and electronic attack of new generation weapons. If stand-off jamming is employed, how much jamming power is required as a function of the ranges from which the jammers must be operated? What are the implications of the electronic protection measures available to new weapon systems on self-protection jamming, chaff and decoys? Also covered in this section are stand-in jamming and modified escort jamming. Formulas showing the impact of station-keeping accuracy on achievable J/S with modified escort jamming are developed.
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Session 5 — Digital Communication Theory
June 21 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session covers the nature and structure of digital signals. It describes the various techniques for digitization, digital modulations, required transmission bandwidths, and the prediction of performance in digital links based on their specifications. Also included in this section is the generation of digital codes, the structure and employment of encryption and error correction codes, the digitization of imagery and video compression techniques.
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Session 6 — Legacy and New Generation Communications Threats and Countermeasures
June 23 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session covers the theory and practice applicable to intercepting and jamming both conventional and LPI communications signals. It first covers the intercept and jamming of conventional analog and digital signals. This includes approaches to determination of jamming effectiveness. Then, this session moves on to the detection, intercept, emitter location and jamming of LPI (frequency hopping, chirp and direct sequence spread spectrum) signals. Techniques covered include both those that can be used in fairly simple systems and those requiring sophisticated digital receivers and processors. Exercises leading to the determination of achieved jamming to signal ratios with various modulations and tactical situations are included.
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Session 7 — Digital Radio Frequency Memories and ES vs. ELINT
June 26 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session describes the structure and function of digital radio frequency memories (DRFM), including wideband and narrowband devices and their specifications. Since DRFMs require digitization at high rates with multiple bits, the limitations of digitizers and ways to achieve higher performance than provided by available devices are described.
The application of DRFMs in jamming pulse-Doppler, pulse compression and frequency hopping radars is described, along with the intercept and jamming performance they enable. The way that DRFMs allow the implementation of various countermeasures techniques is included in this section.
Also included is the application of DRFMs in decoys to generate complex, realistic radar return simulations required to fool sophisticated new radars.
The balance of this session will discuss the important differences between the systems and techniques for intercept of hostile signals for Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) and for Electronic Support (ES).
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Session 8 — IR Threats and Countermeasures
June 28 - 1300-1600 EDT (1700-2000 UTC)
This session describes heat seeking missiles, infrared (IR) line scanners, and other thermal sensing devices; along with a discussion of Infrared signal propagation. Conventional flares (to defeat heat seeking missiles) and new flare developments are described and their performance analyzed. This includes a discussion of various techniques used in missiles to acquire and track their targets – including many types of tracking reticles and imagery based trackers. The way that the different types of flares decoy missiles way from those targets is discussed – also the different strategies for the deployment of individual and volleys of flares.
The operation and effectiveness of IR jammers against various threats is included in the section.
Register for Session 8